Banner image with fireworks, the American flag, the Statue of Liberty, and the words "We The People"

SPECIAL UPDATE: Microsoft Teams Page

Most of you have used your Teams pages before in other classes, but until now, we have not had much reason to use them for Civics. That changes now. I have created a new Teams page, one that takes all my class periods and combines them into one. I plan to use that as the best way to reach you all simultaneously in a way that is easy and convenient for you (instead of having you check this page constantly.) You should begin logging into your Office 365 student accounts and checking your Teams pages regularly. I'll see you there!


The situation we now face, not only in our local community, in our state, and in our nation, but across the globe, is like nothing we could have ever expected. It is frightening, confusing, and disruptive beyond our expectations. I know that for many of you, losing the ability to come to school each day represents a lot more than losing valuable classroom time. It means losing time with your friends - critical for your social, mental, and emotional well-being. It means losing time with your counselors, who may have been providing you with essential support and whose absence you now feel sharply. It means losing time with your teachers, who may have been providing you with stability and guidance in addition to education and learning.

But it also means that WE are losing the time we spend with YOU. You may not realize just how important that is to us.

Every teacher, administrator, counselor, and staff member in this building feels this loss very deeply. We come to work every day because of you, and we worry about you. We miss you. We want to make sure you are doing okay, that you are getting what you need, that you are safe and healthy both in body and in mind.

Of course, we want to continue your education, but especially given these circumstances, even that is secondary to your well-being. 

Please, stay safe and stay healthy. Reach out when you need to. We are here. We may not be in the building, but we haven't gone anywhere. And we won't be going anywhere. YOU are our priority.

At the end of the school year, we 8th grade teachers always relish what is often a bittersweet moment when we say goodbye and wish you well in your future as high schoolers. This year, however, we won't get that chance... at least not in-person. So next year, I hope that each and every one of you will try to find an opportunity to come see us. Come visit, let us know that you are okay, and give us the chance to tell you, face-to-face, how proud we are of the young men and women you have become.

Thank you for listening. And once more, and not for the last time, stay healthy and stay safe.

My email address is


Given the announced closure of all Virginia schools for the remainder of the academic year, I have uploaded some cumulative review materials into a folder marked "At-Home Review". Please check the Files and Documents link to the left to find it. In addition, I have re-organized my page into eight Units to provide materials that cover every Civics and Economics standard we have already covered in addition to the standards we have not. Even though nothing new will be graded or required at this time, I encourage you to dig into this material. Check the navigation bar to the left to see what I've got for you.

What we have already covered
CE.2 - Foundations of American Constitutional Government
CE.3 - Rights, Responsibilities, and Duties of Citizens in America
CE.4 - Personal Character Traits of Good Citizens
CE.5 - The Political Process (Political Parties, Elections and Campaigns, Voting, Role of the Media, the Electoral College)
CE.6 - American Constitutional Government at the National Level
CE.7 - American Constitutional Government at the State Level
CE.8 - American Constitutional Government at the Local Level
CE.9 - The Judicial System (Federal and Virginia)
CE.10 - Public Policy at National, State, and Local Levels

(All of the above was covered in Units 1 through 7)

What we have NOT already covered
CE.11 - Economic Decision Making
CE.12 - Structure and Function of the United States Economy
CE.13 - Role of the Government in the United States Economy
CE.14 - Personal Finance and Career Decisions

(All of the above was to be covered in Unit 8)

UPDATE: As of 3/25/2020, teachers are not to post new units or new materials to teacher pages. In accordance with this, I have hidden my "Unit 8 - Economics" folder.

The federal government has excused all states from required standardized testing if they apply for a waiver. The Virginia Department of Education has announced their intention to apply for a waiver, which means there will be no Civics and Economics SOL test this year.

I was unable to bring your Citizenship Posters home for grading before the school building was closed to staff. I had only managed to grade 1st period's posters. However, since I was able to get a good look at all of them, I have decided - in the interest of being as fair as possible - that I will apply a blanket 95% grade (the highest scored in 1st period) to all periods. You did good work, and I was impressed with what I saw.

In terms of future grades: Until further notice, no new graded assignments will be given. Any activities or materials that I will be providing are strictly voluntary and un-graded. Regardless, as I said above, I strongly encourage you to dive into all the review materials I have uploaded into the Files and Documents section, as well as the materials I had planned to use for Unit 8: Economics (the only unit we were unable to cover before school closed).

In light of Governor Northam's order to close all Virginia schools for the remainder of the academic year, I will be accepting all missing assignments, regardless of Quarter. If you are missing any work from Q1, Q2, or Q3, look through the online materials here to find it, complete it, and send it to me for full credit. If you are missing something that is not uploaded, let me know via email and I will make adjustments.

ALSO... remember to check out the "Useful Links" section for some fun review activities you may wish to try.

 On this page you will find a variety of resources and materials to assist you throughout the school year.

Check out "Useful Links" for some websites that can help you increase your understanding of civics and American government.

Check out "Files and Documents" to see digital copies of class handouts, classroom presentations, and additional study materials.